American Journal of Economics and Business Administration

The Legal Status of Eco-Labels and Product and Process Methods in the World Trade Organization

Jasper Stein

DOI : 10.3844/ajebasp.2009.285.295

American Journal of Economics and Business Administration

Volume 1, Issue 4

Pages 285-295


Problem statement: The award of eco-labels to environmental friendly products or production and process methods of products is a measure to protect the environment by supporting environmental friendly products. WTO members award eco-labels to combine trade restrictions which are based on environmental protection and the general provisions of the WTO. Approach: This study examined the different types of Eco-labels and their characteristics and their legal status in the WTO. Therefore, this study is divided into three topics. In the first topic, the attributes of Eco-labels will be presented. Results: After that, the next topic deals with the legal status of eco-labels within the WTO and based on this a review of the WTO jurisprudence of products' attributes and products' product and process methods is made. Conclusion/Recommendations: In the last topic, the outcome of the WTO jurisprudence is applied to the legal status of Eco-labels within the WTO. Generally, Eco-labels are applicable to WTO-provisions, as long as they are voluntary.


© 2009 Jasper Stein. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.