Micrornas as Double Edged Sword in Cancer
Baby Joseph and Vrundha M. Nair
DOI : 10.3844/ajbsp.2013.1.7
Current Research in Bioinformatics
Volume 2, Issue 1
Cancer is the leading causes of death world wide. Basically it can be defined as the disease of the cell. One among the mechanism of transfer of a normal cell to cancerous is the alteration in the genetic material DNA. Treatment for cancer remains as a biggest challenge. Here comes the importance of miRNAs. They are endogenous RNA which regulates a wide range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis by suppressing the expression of target mRNA thus playing a central role in various human diseases including cancer. Hence advancement in miRNA research is necessary to develop it as a powerful therapeutic tool in cancer. Oncomirs are miRNAs acts as double edged sword in cancer because up-regulation and down-regulation of miRNAs are observed in cancerous cells and hence acts as oncogenes and tumor suppressors respectively. miRNAs can act as potential biomarkers. Studies shows that the change in level of miRNA are directly associated with cancer. Hence till-date reviewing as onco-miRs is necessary which further the researcher to develop it as a specific and potential target in cancer treatment. miRNAs are promising therapeutic tools for cancer because in humans, 50% of miRNA genes were localized in cancer-associated genomic regions which include minimal regions of amplification, loss of heterozygosity, fragile sites and common breakpoint regions. miRNA are found to be up-regulated and down-regulated in almost all cancer cells. Hence, in this article an attempt is made to review the evidence of microRNAs in cancer as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors.
© 2013 Baby Joseph and Vrundha M. Nair. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.