Research Article Open Access

The Development Technique of Side and Budwood Grafting Improving Production of Cocoa in Mamuju Regency West Sulawesi, Indonesia

Ida Suryani1
  • 1 Cokroaminoto University, Indonesia
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
Volume 21 No. 2, 2021, 199-206

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2021.199.206

Submitted On: 18 October 2020 Published On: 7 April 2021

How to Cite: Suryani, I. (2021). The Development Technique of Side and Budwood Grafting Improving Production of Cocoa in Mamuju Regency West Sulawesi, Indonesia. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(2), 199-206. https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2021.199.206

Abstract

The one of human effort increasing productivity and high quality of cocoa is rehabilitating plant using plant materials with high production and resistant clones to Cocoa Pod Borer. The common methods using side and budwood grafting technique. The research objectives is to compare two grafting technology for old cocoa plant, community empowerment in developing side grafting of cocoa plants by means improve technical skills and develop of farmers in Mamuju Regency. The research was conducted for two years (2017 and 2018) used locations of farmers cocoa plantation in Papalang District, Mamuju Regency, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. The research was held in the two stages: (1) Consultation and coordination with relevant agencies such as: Plantation Service, Trade Service, Meteorological Agency at Provincial and District levels used interview techniques and secondary data collection (area size, number of cocoa farmers, production and productivity, sale and selling price, climatic and soil condition). This activity gaining support from the local government and other stakeholders related to cocoa development; (2) testing the cocoa vegetative propagation technique by side and budwood grafting at the farmer and seed breeder level. Observations were made on the percentage of successful plant connections, plant growth, number of seeds produced per unit time and business feasibility analysis used the B/C ratio. The results were showed that the success rate of the connection achieved was actually higher for side grafting than budwood grafting. The success rates of cocoa clones budwood grafting and side grafting at first month were 83.3 and 90.3%, respectively. Until the fourth month after grafting, the percentage of superior cocoa clones can planted in the plantation still more than 80%. The success rate of cocoa growing in second year (2018) at Papalang District after applied by two technical grafting. There are budwood grafting result only around 88.5%. The side grafting was showed the higher success rate about 94.5%. Finding of research at Mamuju, the attack of Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB) Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen, as the main pest insect of cocoa has potential decreasing plant productivity. As the conclusion of the research: (1) the success rates of superior cocoa clones budwood and side grafting at first month were 83.3 and 90.3%, respectively; (2) in the observation of second year (2018), there are budwood grafting result only around 88.5%. The side grafting was showed the higher success rate about 94.5%; (3) need more effort farmer control CPB and avoid insect population outbreak very fast in the plantation. This situation will change by transfer of new technology and more support from the Government for increasing cocoa productivity.

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Keywords

  • Cocoa
  • Side Grafting
  • Budwood Grafting
  • Cocoa Pod Borer
  • Productivity