Research Article Open Access

In Vitro Biological Profiles and Chemical Contents of Ethanolic Nest Entrance Extracts of Thai Stingless Bees Tetrigona apicalis

Touchkanin Jongjitvimol1, Sathirapong Kraikongjit2, Pussadee Paensuwan2 and Jirapas Jongjitwimol2
  • 1 Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University, Thailand
  • 2 Naresuan University, Thailand
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
Volume 20 No. 3, 2020, 157-165

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2020.157.165

Submitted On: 2 October 2020 Published On: 2 November 2020

How to Cite: Jongjitvimol, T., Kraikongjit, S., Paensuwan, P. & Jongjitwimol, J. (2020). In Vitro Biological Profiles and Chemical Contents of Ethanolic Nest Entrance Extracts of Thai Stingless Bees Tetrigona apicalis. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(3), 157-165. https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci.2020.157.165

Abstract

Tetrigona apicalis is a species of stingless bees found in Lower Northern Thailand. They normally construct their nest entrances as an external structure for protecting themselves from enemies. Their biological properties have not well characterized yet. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and anti-proliferative activities of their nest entrances. Samples were collected from four provinces and then extracted using 70% ethanol, finally called as ethanolic Nest Entrances Extracts (eNEEs). Broth microdilution method was applied to determine their antimicrobial effects. The cytotoxicity was examined to evaluate their anti-proliferative effects. The total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were determined using colorimetric methods. Overall, the MICs were between 6.25 and >12.5 mg/mL against the bacteria tested whereas were between 1.56 and >12.5 mg/mL for the yeasts tested. The IC50 of HeLa cells was lower than that of LEP cells. TPC (19.3-24.1 mg PGE/g dried eNEEs) and TFC (2.4-4.8 mg QE/g dried eNEEs) contained in the eNEEs with the major substances of hydroquinin and quercetin. In conclusion, the Thai ethanolic nest entrance extracts possess the antibacterial, antifungal and anti-proliferative activities.

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Keywords

  • Antimicrobial Activity
  • Anti-Proliferative Activity
  • Natural Product