Research Article Open Access

Thinging-Based Conceptual Modeling: Case Study of a Tendering System

Sabah Al-Fedaghi1 and Esraa Haidar1
  • 1 Kuwait University, Kuwait
Journal of Computer Science
Volume 16 No. 4, 2020, 452-466


Submitted On: 18 January 2020 Published On: 15 April 2020

How to Cite: Al-Fedaghi, S. & Haidar, E. (2020). Thinging-Based Conceptual Modeling: Case Study of a Tendering System. Journal of Computer Science, 16(4), 452-466.


In computer science, models are made explicit to provide formality and a precise understanding of small, contingent “universes” (e.g., an organization), as constructed from stakeholder requirements. Conceptual modeling is a fundamental discipline in this context whose main concerns are identifying, analyzing and describing the critical concepts of a universe of discourse. In the information systems field, one of the reasons why projects fail is an inability to capture requirements in a way that can be technically used to configure a system. This problem of requirements specification is considered to have “deficiencies in theory”. We apply a recently developed model called the Thinging Machine (TM) model which uniformly integrates static and dynamic modeling features to this problem of requirements specification. The object-Oriented (OO) approach to modeling, as applied in Unified Modeling Language, is by far the most applied and accepted standard in software engineering; nevertheless, new notions in the field may enhance and facilitate a supplementary understanding of the OO model itself. We aim to contribute to the field of conceptual modeling by introducing the TM model’s philosophical foundation of requirements analysis. The TM model has only five generic processes of things (e.g., objects), in which genericity indicates generality, as in the generic Aristotelian concepts based on abstraction. We show the TM model’s viability by applying it to a real business system.

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  • Abstract Machine
  • Conceptual Modeling
  • Diagrammatic Representation
  • Generic Process
  • Requirement Engineering
  • System Modeling