Potential, Implications and Solutions Regarding the Use of Rendered Animal Fats in Aquafeeds
- 1 ,
Copyright: © 2020 Jesse T. Trushenski and Rebecca T. Lochmann. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Problem statement: In the past, aquafeeds were comprised largely of fish meal and fish oil derived from marine reduction fisheries. In addition to being highly palatable and readily digested by cultured fishes, these feedstuffs were historically inexpensive sources of protein, energy and essential nutrients. However, increasing cost and concerns over safety and sustainability have greatly incentivized the transition from fish meal and oil to alternative sources of protein and lipid for aquafeed formulation. Fish oil replacement is proving more difficult than originally anticipated, particularly for marine carnivorous species. Approach: If complete fish oil replacement is not a viable goal for fish nutritionists and aquafeed manufacturers, at a minimum, we must strive for judicious use of limited marine-derived resources. In the present review, we explore the opportunities of using rendered fats as alternatives to marine-derived fish oils in aquaculture feeds, beginning with a discussion of the products themselves before reviewing the most recent literature and concluding with a discussion of the future of these products in aquafeed formulations. Results: Rendered fats have not been as intensively evaluated in aquaculture nutrition as grain and oilseed-derived lipids, although a number of recent publications on the subject suggest increasing interest in the use of rendered products in aquafeeds. Conclusion: Poultry fat, beef tallow, pork lard and to a lesser extent, yellow/restaurant grease and catfish oil, have been investigated individually or in combination with other lipids in feeds for a broad range of cultured taxa with generally acceptable results.
- fish oil
- alternative lipid
- fatty acid
- fish nutrition