Research Article Open Access

Water Filter Fabrication from a Mixture of KMnO4 Modified Kapok Carbon Fiber, Zeolite, Bentonite and Clay for Fe3+Removal and Water Hardness Treatment

Kannika Thongdee1, Kalayaporn Parun1, Suphakrit Benjatitmongkhon1, Krit Jamtim1 and Sumrit Mopoung1
  • 1 Naresuan University, Thailand
American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 14 No. 6, 2017, 636-648

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2017.636.648

Submitted On: 8 December 2016 Published On: 15 June 2017

How to Cite: Thongdee, K., Parun, K., Benjatitmongkhon, S., Jamtim, K. & Mopoung, S. (2017). Water Filter Fabrication from a Mixture of KMnO4 Modified Kapok Carbon Fiber, Zeolite, Bentonite and Clay for Fe3+Removal and Water Hardness Treatment. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 14(6), 636-648. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2017.636.648

Abstract

A water filter was fabricated from a mixture of KMnO4 modified kapok carbon fiber, zeolite, bentonite and kaolinite clay for Fe3+ removal and water hardness treatment. The effects of amount of KMnO4 modified kapok carbon fiber (30-60 wt%), zeolite (20-40 wt%) and sintering temperature (500-700°C) on the properties of sintered products were evaluated. The best of sintered products were tested for treatment of solutions with 5 mg L-1 Fe3+ and 40-200 mg L-1 total water hardness. The results show that the physical properties of the sintered products were affected by the contents of KMnO4 modified kapok carbon fiber and sintering temperature. The linear drying shrinkages of the mixture of raw materials increase with increasing content of modified kapok carbon fiber amounts due to the effect of water amount used for mixing process. Furthermore, firing shrinkages of sintered products increased with increasing sintering temperature for the same ratio of raw materials. Finally, the firing shrinkages and density of sintered products decrease with increasing content of the modified kapok carbon fiber at constant sintering temperature. It was shown that the sintered product made with 40 wt% of KMnO4 modified kapok carbon fiber and sintered at 600°C is suitable for filter fabrication. The KMnO4 modified kapok carbon fiber filter could adsorb 5-6% more Fe3+ at equilibrium than filter made with kapok carbon fiber. The Fe3+ was removed by adsorption and precipitation processes. The Fe3+ adsorption process of modified kapok carbon fiber filter was fitted to the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 53.76 mg g-1. For hardness removal, the Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3ˉ ions removal capacities from solutions of total hardness in the range 40-200 mg L-1 by modified kapok carbon fiber filter are 4.49-19.21 mg g-1 for Ca2+, 1.55- 5.31 mg g-1 for Mg2+ and 28.1-123.5 mg g-1 for HCO3ˉ, respectively. 

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Keywords

  • Water Filter
  • Fe3+
  • Hardness Water
  • KMnO4 Modified Kapok Carbon Fiber
  • Clay Minerals