Physical Properties of Rice Residues as Affected by Variety and Climatic and Cultivation Onditions in Three Continents
- 1 Dalhousie University, Canada
- 2 , China
Copyright: © 2020 Yaning Zhang, A. E. Ghaly and Bingxi Li. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Rice husk and straw are by-products of rice cultivation and processing industry and can be used as an energy source. Proper understanding of the physical properties of rice residues is necessary for utilizing them in thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification and combustion. The physical properties (moisture content, particle size, bulk density and porosity) of rice husks and straws obtained from three countries (Egypt, Cuba and China) were evaluated in this study. The moisture contents of rice husks and straws were in the ranges of 4.60-6.07% and 6.58-6.92%, respectively. For all rice varieties tested, the moisture content of the straws was higher than these of the husks. The particle sizes of rice husks and straws were in the ranges of 0.212-0.850 mm and 0-0.710 mm, respectively. All the rice husk varieties had a normal distribution of particle size around the main value of 0.6 mm while the particle size distribution for the rice straws showed a decreasing trend, the larger the particle size the higher was the weight percentage. The bulk density of rice husks and straws were in the ranges of 331.59-380.54 kg m-3 and 162.03-194.48 kg m-3, respectively. The bulk density values of rice straws were lower than those of rice husks. A negative linear relationship between the bulk density and the average particle size was observed for rice husks and straws. The porosity of rice husks and straws were in the ranges of 63.64-68.94% and 71.21-85.28%, respectively. A positive linear relationship between the porosity and the average particle size was observed for rice husks and straws. Also, a negative linear relationship between the porosity and the bulk density was observed. The results obtained from this study showed significant differences in the physical properties of the rice husks and straws collected from different countries (located in three different continents). These differences may be due to variations in climatic conditions, soil type, methods of cultivation and type of fertilizer used. The results also indicated that different parts of rice plant (straw and husk) had different physical properties. Also, significant differences were observed among rice varieties even though they were grown under the same climatic conditions using same soil type and cultivation method as in the case of the long and short grain rice variety of Egypt.
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- Bulk Density
- Particle Size
- Moisture Content
- Rice Husk