Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto a Low-Cost Natural Jordanian Tripoli
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Copyright: © 2020 Atef S. ALzaydien. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Problem statement: It is well documented that lead is one of contaminants of industrial wastewaters and its pollution exists in the wastewater of many industries. As a result, recent research has focused on the development of cost effective alternatives using various natural sources and industrial wastes. In this setting, the use of low-cost agricultural materials, waste and residues for recovering heavy metals from contaminated industrial effluent has emerged as a potential alternative method to high cost adsorbents. In the present study, adsorption of lead(II) ions onto Orange Peel (OP), a typical agricultural byproduct, was investigated systematically with the variation in the parameters of pH, sorbent dosage, contact time and the initial concentration of adsorbate. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also calculated to describe the adsorption mechanism. Approach: The Orange Peel (OP) was obtained from a local market in the south of Jordan. The orange peel was cut into small pieces using scissors. Then OP was dried at 100°C for 24 h using hot air oven. Qualitative analyses of the main functional groups involved in metal adsorption were performed using a Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer FTIR 1605, ¨Uberlingen, Germany). Biosorption experiments were carried out in a thermostatic shaker at 180 rpm and at an ambient temperature (20±2°C) using 250 mL shaking flasks containing 100 mL of different concentrations and initial pH values of Pb(II) solutions, prepared from reagent grade salt Pb(NO3)2 (Merck). The initial pH values of the solutions were previously adjusted with 0.1 M HNO3 or NaOH and measured using a hand held pH meters (315i/SET). The sorbent (0.2-1.0 g) was added to each flask and then the flasks were sealed up to prevent change of volume of the solution during the experiments. After shaking the flasks for predetermined time intervals, the samples were withdrawn from the flasks and filtered through a Whatman filter paper. The filtrate was analyzed by AAS (Perkin Elmer Analyst 300). Results: Four kinetic models are the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion equations, were selected to interpret the adsorption data. Kinetic parameters such as the rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. The linear Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe equilibrium isotherms and both models fitted well. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found as 21.1 mg g-1 at pH 6 and 20°C.The dimensionless separation factor (RL) has shown that orange peel can be used for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The nagative free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption of lead (II) ions onto orange peel was feasible and spontaneous. Conclusion: The sorption capacity of the orange peel is comparable to the other available adsorbents and it is quite cheaper.
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- orange peel
- adsorption isotherm