OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status

Fouad H. AL-Bayaty, Noor A. Baharuddin and Mahmood A. Abdulla

DOI : 10.3844/ojbsci.2010.54.59

OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences

Volume 10, Issue 2

Pages 54-59


Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64) year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood


© 2010 Fouad H. AL-Bayaty, Noor A. Baharuddin and Mahmood A. Abdulla. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.