Population and Behavior Surveys of Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in the Old Town, Lopburi Province
Duangjai Boonkusol, Pornchai Sanyathitiseree, Suporn Thongyuan and Nantana Jangsuwan
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in the old town, Lopburi province rapid increase in their number as well nuisance activities. Strategies and management plans of Lopburi province, Thailand need to be developed and enacted in order to remedy some of the problems occurring in human-macaque interface zones. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the macaque number and behavior, a survey on their population number and behavior was conducted from November, 2014 to May, 2015. Population estimation of long-tailed macaque was done by surveying seven macaque groups in the old town, Lopburi province: Prang Sam Yot shrine (GR1) Malai Rama theatre (GR2), Van station (GR3), Chayowanich building (GR4), Muang Thong hotel (GR5), Manora market (GR6) and Sengheng building (GR7). The identified macaque groups were visited during dusk or dawn and visual counts of each group were made carefully from close distance. One-way ANOVA, followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) method was used for analysis of differences in macaque population number. Total estimated macaque population of seven groups range was between 1,920 and 2,080. Group size ranged from 70 to 700 individuals. Male and female sex ratio was estimated at 1:1.3. Behavior of M. fascicularis was observed by using scan sampling method for 216 hours during November, 2014 to May, 2015. The high levels frequency of behavior between macaque and macaque was feeding (20%) and inactive (29%). Food-related interaction (32%) was the highest frequency of behavior between macaque and human. Results suggested that factors related to macaque number and behavior for could be related to dietary resources. Moreover, feeding, playing, agonistic, moving, defecation and food-related interaction behavior were high frequency at period of 9 am. Conflicting, aggression and vocalization behavior were shown the most percentage of behavior frequency at 10 am and 4 pm. This data will be useful for management of respective locales was recommended to formulate practical strategies to avoid or decrease the interaction between macaque and human. The macaque population needs to be monitored and studied in depth to better understand their dynamics and behavioral adaptations to this old town.
© 2018 Duangjai Boonkusol, Pornchai Sanyathitiseree, Suporn Thongyuan and Nantana Jangsuwan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.