American Journal of Immunology

Initiatives to Improve the Quality of Life of HIV Positive Diagnosed Subjects: A Review of Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutics under the Light of Science and Ethics

Mario Enrique Molina, Jeremías Abou Medelej, Jorgelina Zucchi and Carlos Manassero

American Journal of Immunology

Abstract

The first cases of AIDS occurred about 1981. There are not fully appropriate therapeutic interventions for treating this medical condition. People who are diagnosed HIV-positive or with AIDS suffer a poor quality of life and receive medication that produces severe adverse reactions. We have analyzed a significant number of papers published in several countries on these topics, and we have found various inconsistencies: - HIV risk behaviors: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the United States, the Estimated Per-Act Probability of Acquiring HIV from an Infected Source, by Exposure Act (heterosexual) is about one in one thousand for women and about one in two thousand for men. Nevertheless, in an investigation conducted through the University of San Francisco, California, on 442 discordant heterosexual couples no seroconversions were observed throughout the ten years the research lasted. (1985-1995). No other study of similar characteristics has been conducted ever since. - Diagnostics methods: In Argentina, we employ the ELISA screening method, subsequently confirmed by a Western Blot test, but in the United Stated this last is discouraged since 2014. - Medication: Many of the drugs that are used to treat HIV are DNA chain terminators which interfere with the normal functioning and replication of normal cells. As a result, damage in the immune system and the mitochondrial DNA are reported very frequently. We ask the scientific community what we should inform the patients about all these. We urge the experts´ opinion on the ethical management aspects. Since the diagnostic tests employed may result in false positives and the fact that the medication is highly toxic, we recommend that patients with HIV positive diagnosis fully re-test their condition at least once a year to minimize eventual diagnostic errors, suspending specific medications in case of discrepancies on the testing results.

Copyright

© 2017 Mario Enrique Molina, Jeremías Abou Medelej, Jorgelina Zucchi and Carlos Manassero. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.