An Overview of Malaria Control
Emmanuel Chanda, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Richard W. Steketee, Michael B. Macdonald, Olusegun Babaniyi and Victor M. Mukonka
DOI : 10.3844/amjsp.2013.91.99
Current Research in Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 1
Malaria remains a serious global public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub Saharan Africa. In Zambia the disease is endemic with stable transmission, accounting for 40% of all out-patient attendances and is responsible for 20% deaths among children under five. Scaling up of scientifically proven high impact preventive, curative and supportive interventions and deploying the three-ones strategy: one coordinating mechanism; one implementation plan and one monitoring plan which is key for increased and successful public-private sector partner coordination, strengthening and mobilization. There has been marked impact in the reduction of the annual number of malaria deaths by over 60% and malaria cases by 66% (2000-2008), under-five malaria deaths by 41% (2006-2008), parasite prevalence among children under five from 22 to16% in 2010 and severe anemia rates in children by 56% (2006-2010). Intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy uptake has reached the RBM target at 86%. With these achievements, the country has surpassed targets set by: (i) the Abuja Declaration and (ii) the RBM of reducing the global malaria burden by 50% by 2010. The achievements can be attributed to increased advocacy, communication and behaviour change, efficient partnership coordination including strong community engagement, increased financial resources and evidence-based deployment of key technical interventions in accordance with the national malaria control programme policy and strategic direction. Maintaining the momentum and the gains is critical as the programme strives to achieve universal coverage of evidence-based and proven interventions. The country offers some unique models and experiences that could really benefit other programmes in the region. Community-level integrated entomological and active case surveillance, prompt effective treatment and sustained high levels of contemporary malaria prevention tools is pivotal to the long-term success of malaria control and future malaria elimination. However, there is great need for sustained, predictable, regular resources and broadening the partnership base. To ensure sustainability, Government needs to remain on the driving seat and committed to malaria control in terms of funding.
© 2013 Emmanuel Chanda, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Richard W. Steketee, Michael B. Macdonald, Olusegun Babaniyi and Victor M. Mukonka. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.