American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Antiretroviral Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

Adikwu Elias, Brambaifa Nelson, Deo Oputiri and Oru-Bo Precious Geoffrey

DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2013.187.196

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Volume 8, Issue 4

Pages 187-196

Abstract

Antiretroviral drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, they are used as combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability, compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development. Reports from preclinical and clinical studies have linked antiretrovirals with some toxicological effects which could be associated with redox imbalance (oxidative stress). This stimulated us to review relevant literature on the relationship between antiretroviral induced toxicological effects and redox imbalance. Available literature on antiretroviral associated toxicological effects and oxidative stress were comprehensively reviewed. Literature showed that antiretrovirals are associated with toxicological effects which includes hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, hematotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Reports in animal studies also showed that these toxicological effects could be associated with oxidative stress through the generation of oxidative radicals, depletion of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes leading to mitochondria damage in the heart, kidney, liver brain and other organs. In humans, studies also showed that antiretrovirals are associated with lipid peroxidation, depletion of antoxidants and antioxidant enzymes which are elements of oxidative stress. Furthermore it was observed that supplementations with some antioxidants mitigated antiretroviral induced oxidative stress, mitochondria damage and toxicological effects. Antiretroviral drugs are associated with toxicological effects which may involve redox imbalance, but more studies are required to correlate antiretroviral toxicities with oxidative stress.

Copyright

© 2013 Adikwu Elias, Brambaifa Nelson, Deo Oputiri and Oru-Bo Precious Geoffrey. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.