American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Anti-Venom Studies on Olax viridis and Syzygium guineense Extracts

Omale James, Ebiloma Unekwuojo Godwin and Ogohi Dorathy Agah

DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2013.1.8

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages 1-8

Abstract

Olax viridis (Olacaceae) and Syzygium guineense (Myrtaceae) are shrubs commonly found in the tropics. They are traditional folkloric medicine for a great number of sicknesses. Olax viridis has a wide range of applications in ethnomedicine which include treatment for ulcers, veneral diseases, ringworm, sleeping sickness, diarrhea, fever. Syzygium guineense has been reported as antidiarrheal agent. Liquid from the bark and roots have been reported to act as a purgative when mixed with water. Both plants have been claimed to have antivenom properties. However, there are no scientific reports on snake venom neutralizing activities of these plants. The plant samples were collected from Olowa in Dekina Local Government Area in Kogi State, Nigeria. The chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade. Wistar albino rats (male) weighing between 180-200 g were randomly divided into seven groups of three (3). Groups 1-7 received water, normal saline, venom, venom and Olax viridis, venom and Syzygium guineense, Olax viridis and Syzygium guineense respectively. The extracts were administered orally at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 b.w of rats and 1 h later, the venom (0.08 mk kg-1) was administered. Pulse rate, blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, creatine kinase activity and edema were measured. Significant neutralization of the effects of Naja katiensis venom was observed in the groups of rats that received the extracts. Blood glucose, pulse rate, rectal temperature and creatine kinase activity were elevated in the untreated envenomated groups. These results suggest that oral administration of Olax viridis and Syzygium guineense extracts possess antivenom property, thus, providing the rationale for their use in treatment of sake envenomation.

Copyright

© 2013 Omale James, Ebiloma Unekwuojo Godwin and Ogohi Dorathy Agah. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.