American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Ciprofloxacin Induced Chondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy

Elias Adikwu and Nelson Brambaifa

DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2012.94.100

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Volume 7, Issue 3

Pages 94-100

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin is one of the fluoroquinolones with a wide clinical acceptability. Rescently there are increasing reports on Ciprofloxacin induce Chondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy in Animal experiment and clinical experience which is of great clinical concern. A comprehensive survey and review of literaure on reported ciprofloxacin induced Chondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy in Humans and Animals was performed. It was observd that ciprofloxacin is a potential inducer of Chrondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy which could be potentiated by coadministration with corticosteroids.This conditions were reported to be characterised by cartilage lesion, matrix swelling, inhibition of chondrocytes proliferation, secretion of soluble proteoglycan, modification of the metabolism and integrity of extracellular proteins, decrease in epiphyseal growth plate, humerus and femur.The mechanism behind this phenomenon is said to be multifactoral. Ciprofloxacin induced Chrondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy in growing animals is attributed to oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) oxidative stress). Ciprofloxacin induced cartilage damage may also be attributed to formation of Ciprofloxacin chelates and complexes which possesses the potential to induce a deficiency of functionally available divalent ions resulting in cytoskeletal changes. Animal studies showed that oxidative damage or metabolism of tissues was also found suggesting the involvement of a reactive oxygen species. Administration of magnesium, zinc chloride and vitamin E (α tocopherol) were found to prevent or reverse ciprofloxacin induced Chrondrotoxicity and Tendinopathy. Through excess formation of collagen, increase osteoblastic activity, increase bone growth, inhibition of free oxidation radicals’ formation thereby preventing DNA oxidation and oxidative stress. Zinc also directly stimulates DNA synthesis either by enzyme stimulation or altering, the binding of f1 and f3 histones to DNA so as to affect RNA synthesis. Patient medical history should be considered before Ciprofloxacin recommendation. Coadministration with corticosteroid should be done with caution. Further evaluation of antioxidants effect in Ciprofloxacin induce Chonrotoxicity, Tendinopathy in humans could be of clinical importance as observed in Animal studies.

Copyright

© 2012 Elias Adikwu and Nelson Brambaifa. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.