Toxicity evaluation of yoyo 'cleanser' bitters and fields Swedish bitters herbal preparations following sub-chronic administration in rats
Martins Ekor, Odusoga Adewale Osonuga, Adesina Olalekan Odewabi, Adewale Ganiyu Bakre and Kolawole Sunday Oritogun
DOI : 10.3844/ajptsp.2010.159.166
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Volume 5, Issue 4
Problem statement: Owing to numerous adverse effects of most orthodox pharmaceuticals, the use of herbal remedies in treatment and prevention of diseases is gaining much attention, especially in developing countries. The increase patronage of these remedies is often predicated on the assumption that they are harmless since they are prepared from natural sources. However, toxicity related to herbal medicines is becoming widely recognized. Yoyo ‘Cleanser’ Bitters (YB) and Fields Swedish Bitters (SB) are herbal preparations largely consumed in Nigeria because of their high publicity in the various national news media. This study evaluated their toxicity potentials following sub-chronic administration in rats. Approach: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 7 rats/group. Control received normal saline while the experimental groups were treated separately with 15 and 30 mL kg-1 of YB and SB respectively. Treatment was given daily by gavage for 30 days. Body weights were measured weekly and rats were sacrificed 24 h after last treatment. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical and haematological assessment. Vital organs were also excised and weighed. Results: YB and SB did not significantly affect creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Na+ ion but significantly (p<0.01) decreased K+ ion concentration when compared with control. Both herbal preparations produced moderate increases in alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with YB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) increasing the latter. YB and SB did not significantly alter total cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin but SB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) decreased total protein when compared with control. SB significantly (p<0.05) elevated white blood cell count while other haematological parameters, vital organs and body weights were not significantly affected by both herbal preparations. Conclusion: YB and SB possess the risk of inducing hypokalaemia. The potential to also increase markers of liver function calls for cautious use in conditions associated with liver impairment.
© 2010 Martins Ekor, Odusoga Adewale Osonuga, Adesina Olalekan Odewabi, Adewale Ganiyu Bakre and Kolawole Sunday Oritogun. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.