Microbial Translocation and B Cell Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease
DOI : 10.3844/ajisp.2012.44.51
American Journal of Immunology
Volume 8, Issue 2
The gut mucosal barrier disrupted in HIV disease, resulting in increased systemic exposure to microbial products such as Lipo Polys Accharide (LPS). The association of enhanced microbial translocation and B cell dysfunction in HIV disease is not fully understood. High dose and short term exposure of microbial Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) agonists were used as vaccine adjuvants, however, low dose and long term exposure of TLR agonists could be harmful. The characteristics of B cell dysfunction in HIV disease included B cell, especially memory B cell depletion, enhanced levels of autoimmune antibodies and impaired vaccine or antigen responsiveness. This review discusses and explores the possibility of the effect of microbial translocation on memory B cell depletion and impaired vaccine responses in HIV infection. By determining the mechanisms of B cell depletion and perturbations in HIV disease, it may be possible to design interventions that can improve immune responses to vaccines, reduce selected opportunistic infections and perhaps slow disease progression.
© 2012 Wei Jiang. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.