American Journal of Immunology

Melanoma-Associated Suppression of the Dendritic Cell Lines DC2.4 and Jawsii

Kristian Michael Hargadon, Yonathan Tarekegne Ararso, Osric Anthony Forrest and Chad Mason Harte

DOI : 10.3844/ajisp.2012.179.190

American Journal of Immunology

Volume 8, 2012

Pages 179-190

Abstract

Dendritic cells function as potent regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity to tumors and the regulatory activities of these cells are tightly linked to their maturation and activation status. Despite the critical role played by dendritic cells in the induction of anti-tumor immune responses, the number of dendritic cells that can be isolated from experimental animals is limiting and often precludes in-depth analyses of these cells. To overcome this limitation, dendritic cell lines have been established and have facilitated the experimental study of dendritic cell biology. In this study we compare the dendritic cell lines DC2.4 and JAWSII as in vitro model systems for studying the influence of melanoma-derived factors on dendritic cell maturation and activation. Using flow cytometry and ELISA analyses, we evaluate the expression of costimulatory/MHC class II molecules and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines by these dendritic cell lines in their resting state and following LPS stimulation in the presence or absence of B16-F1 melanoma-derived factors. Results: We demonstrate that soluble B16-F1-derived factors suppress the LPS-induced upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II on both the DC2.4 and JAWSII dendritic cell lines. Interestingly, LPS-induced secretion by DC2.4 cells of the proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines TNF-α, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and MCP-1 is also altered by B16-F1-derived factors, whereas JAWSII cell cytokine/chemokine production is affected to a lesser extent by such factors, with only IL-1β and IP-10 production being suppressed. Conclusions/Recommendations: We conclude that melanoma-derived factors can suppress dendritic cell maturation/activation and that the DC2.4 and JAWSII dendritic cell lines are effective in vitro models for future studies that aim to (1) identify factors that influence both the susceptibility and the resistance of dendritic cells to tumor-mediated immunosuppression and (2) investigate the influence of tumor-altered dendritic cells on the quality of anti-tumor T cell responses.

Copyright

© 2012 Kristian Michael Hargadon, Yonathan Tarekegne Ararso, Osric Anthony Forrest and Chad Mason Harte. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.