Role of Cytokines in the Regulation of Glioma Tumour Growth and Angiogenesis
Christina Piperi, Athanasios Zisakis, Robert W. Lea and Anastasios Kalofoutis
DOI : 10.3844/ajisp.2005.106.113
American Journal of Immunology
Volume 1, 2005
Malignant glioblastomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors accounting for more than 50% of all intracranial gliomas. Due to their aggressive nature, recurrent growth, and their extremely poor prognosis for survival, research approaches have made little progress in advancing treatment of these tumours which have the ability of both modulating host immune function and neutralizing immune-based therapies. Patients with gliomas exhibit a broad suppression of cell-mediated immunity by a shift in cytokine secretion from Th1-type immune response to Th2, with an increased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines been observed, possibly due to release of a variety of immunosuppressive factors. Furthermore, secretion of specific cytokines stimulates angiogenic processes which contribute to the development of malignancy of these tumours. This review summarizes the role of cytokines in glioma growth and invasion, and indicates how specific cytokines may affect angiogenesis.
© 2005 Christina Piperi, Athanasios Zisakis, Robert W. Lea and Anastasios Kalofoutis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.