Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine Candidate from MRSA Isolates: The Prospect of a Multivalent Vaccine
Novra Arya Sandi, Tenri Ashari Wanahari, Isabel MacPhillamy, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Basofi Ashari Mappakaya and Asmarani Kusumawati
DOI : 10.3844/ajidsp.2015.54.62
American Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 11, Issue 3
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause various infections in humans and animals throughout the world. The increasing incidence of S. aureus infection, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is complicated by the antibiotic-resistance phenomenon. Thus, it requires new strategies to prevent wider scale of its incidence occurring. Preventative methods against infectious diseases through vaccination can prevent, control and reduce the severity of the disease process. Various methods have been used in the development of vaccines to prevent S. aureus infections, but no satisfactory results have been obtained. Recent studies suggests that multivalent vaccines based on cell-mediated immunity is expected to provide better protection against infection. The purpose of this article is to summarize the challenges of S. aureus infection and the current status of its potential solution with the development of a multivalent vaccine and to explain the latest approaches recommended to obtain successful development of S. aureus vaccine by inducing T-cells CD8+, CD4+ and Th17. Seven MRSA Indonesian origin isolates from humans and dairy-cattle were used as candidate vaccines as genotypic characterization had previously been performed (coa, eta, etb, hla, hlb, cap5, cap8, fnbA, fnbB and mecA). Vaccination can be performed with live-attenuated or killed-vaccine and could be combined with an injection of αCD40 monoclonal-antibodies (mAbs) with the aim to induce cellular-based active immunity (T CD8+, CD4+ and Th17). These isolates are expected to be safe vaccine candidates with immunogenic-protective properties based on genetic and antigenic variation to prevent and control staphylococcal infections in humans and animals.
© 2015 Novra Arya Sandi, Tenri Ashari Wanahari, Isabel MacPhillamy, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Basofi Ashari Mappakaya and Asmarani Kusumawati. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.