American Journal of Infectious Diseases

Innate, Adaptive and Intrinsic Immunity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Suneth S. Perera and Nitin K. Saksena

DOI : 10.3844/ajidsp.2012.132.148

American Journal of Infectious Diseases

Volume 8, Issue 3

Pages 132-148

Abstract

The first line of defence of the innate immune system functions by recognizing highly conserved sets of molecular structures specific to the microbes, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs via the germ line-encoded receptors Pattern-Recognition Receptors (PRRs). In addition to the innate immune system, the vertebrates have also evolved a second line of defence termed adaptive immune system, which uses a diverse set of somatically rearranged receptors T-Cell Receptors (TCRs) and B Cell Receptors (BCRs), which have the inherent ability to effectively recognise diverse antigens. The innate and adaptive immune systems are functionally tied in with the intrinsic immunity, which comprises of endogenous antiviral factors. Thus, this effective response to diverse microbial infections, including HIV, requires a coordinated interaction at several functional levels between innate, adaptive and intrinsic immune systems. This review provides a snapshot of roles played by the innate, adaptive and the intrinsic immune systems during HIV-infection, along with discussing recent developments highlighting the genomic basis of these responses and their regulation by micro-RNA (miRNAs).

Copyright

© 2012 Suneth S. Perera and Nitin K. Saksena. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.