American Journal of Infectious Diseases

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases Induced by Human Retroviruses: A Review

Bryan P. Irish, Zafar K. Khan, Pooja Jain, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Vanessa Pirrone, Saifur Rahman, Nirmala Rajagopalan, Joyce B. Suchitra, Kate Mostoller and Brian Wigdahl

DOI : 10.3844/ajidsp.2009.231.258

American Journal of Infectious Diseases

Volume 5, Issue 3

Pages 231-258

Abstract

Problem statement: Infection with retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) have been shown to lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or neuroAIDS and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP), respectively. Approach: HIV-1-induced neurologic disease is associated with an influx of HIV-infected monocytic cells across the blood-brain barrier. Following neuroinvasion, HIV-1 and viral proteins, in addition to cellular mediators released from infected and uninfected cells participate in astrocytic and neuronal dysregulation, leading to mild to severe neurocognitive disorders. Results: The molecular architecture of viral regulatory components including the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR), genes encoding the viral proteins Tat, Vpr and Nef as well as the envelope gene encoding gp120 and gp41 have been implicated in

Copyright

© 2009 Bryan P. Irish, Zafar K. Khan, Pooja Jain, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Vanessa Pirrone, Saifur Rahman, Nirmala Rajagopalan, Joyce B. Suchitra, Kate Mostoller and Brian Wigdahl. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.