Emission Factors of CH4 and CO2 Emitted from Vehicles
Sutthicha Nilrit, Pantawat Sampanpanish and Surat Bualert
DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2013.38.44
American Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 1
The study of the Emission Factors (EF) of methane (CH4) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emitted from vehicle exhaust is the study of greenhouse gases that are crucial to climate change. These gases are part of a fuel known as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or as Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) in Thailand. This fuel is used as an alternative to oil, which has decreased the amount of gasoline and diesel oil used in the transportation sector of Thailand. This study used different types of cars that were tested on a chassis dynamometer with a Bangkok driving cycle to measure the emissions of CH4 and CO2 and then to calculate the averages of EF-CH4 and EF-CO2, which are associated with speed and fuel consumption, respectively. This study was conducted in 3 vehicle types that are actually used in Thailand, namely, Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles (HDDV), Light Duty Diesel Vehicles (LDDV) and Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV). Our results showed that of the three vehicle types, HDDV produced the highest EF-CH4 and EF-CO2 averages at 7.22 and 919.6 g km-1, respectively. LDDV produced the lowest EF-CH4 (0.17 g km-1) and LDGV produced the lowest EF-CO2 (153.8 g km-1). In addition, the EF-CH4 and EF-CO2values of LDDV and LDGV were comparable even though the engine types of these vehicles were different. With respect to fuel consumption, the EF-CH4 and EF-CO2 of HDDV indicated a higher fuel consumption, which differed from those of LDDV and LDGV. Nevertheless, LDGV or taxis, which account for a large portion of the transportation sector in Thailand, emitted higher proportions of CH4 and CO2 than the other vehicle types, as shown by the CH4:CO2 ratio. Therefore, according to the results, the EF-CH4 and EF-CO2 values can be applied for the effective evaluation of CH4 and CO2 emissions from vehicles in Thailand.
© 2013 Sutthicha Nilrit, Pantawat Sampanpanish and Surat Bualert. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.