Characterization, Concentrations and Emission Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds from Two Major Landfill Sites in Kuwait
Mohammad AlAhmad, Marwan Dimashki, Abdallah Nassour and Michael Nelles
DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2012.56.63
American Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 1
Problem statement: The emission of pollutants from landfill sites in Kuwait is of major concern due to the associated adverse environmental and health impacts. There are 18 landfill sites in Kuwait which are contributing to the emission of atmospheric pollutants including; methane, carbon dioxide and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Approach: Determine the concentration and composition of VOCs in LFG emissions from two major landfill sites in Kuwait and to investigate the influence of the "In-Situ Aerobic Stabilization" on the reduction of VOCs emission. VOCs samples were collected during an intensive, short-term field sampling campaign conducted in 2010 where 50 individual volatile organic compounds were identified and quantified in landfill gas samples collected from the two landfill sites and the Project Area. Results: The concentration levels of VOCs were found to be significantly different within the same landfill site; however, the average total VOCs emissions were comparable between the two landfill sites. Concentration of total VOCs (i.e., sum of 50 compounds) in LFG emissions varied between 9.4-67.2 ppm in Jleeb Al-Shuyoukh landfill site and from 15.4-57.7 ppm in Al-Qurain landfill site. Annual emissions of the well-known five VOCs (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, o- and p-xylenes and styrene) were also computed for each vent pipe from Jleeb Al-Shuyoukh landfill using the measured average concentrations and LFG flow rates. The results, if calculated in terms of the average ?BTEX+S quantity emitted per vent pipe per year, showed that the magnitude of ?BTEX+S emissions ranged between 0.108 -11.686 g y?1. Conclusion: The results of this pilot project demonstrated that the in-situ aerobic stabilization method applied on old solid waste deposits in the project area of Jleeb Al-Shuyoukh landfill can significantly reduce the average VOCs concentration in LFG emissions from high-productivity wells in the project area down to (6.3±1.6 ppm), whereas VOCs concentration in LFG emissions from high-productivity wells in Jleeb Al-Shuyoukh landfill and Al-Qurain landfill sites remained relatively high, 57.1±6.95 and 49.8±11.2 ppm, respectively.
© 2012 Mohammad AlAhmad, Marwan Dimashki, Abdallah Nassour and Michael Nelles. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.