American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Using Thermal Infrared Imagery (TIR) for Illustrating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge into the Eastern Shoreline of the Dead Sea-Jordan

Emad Akawwi, Abdallah Al-Zouabi, Maher Kakish, Fredrich Koehn and Martin Sauter

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2008.693.700

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 4, Issue 6

Pages 693-700


Many of thermal anomalies that are indicator of discharge zones of warmer water were observed along the Dead Sea shoreline at the areas of Zarka Ma’in, Zara and Al-Mujeb. The groundwater discharge locations were mapped along eastern shores of the Dead Sea by using aerial thermal infrared imagery (λ = 8-13 µm). A digital thermal infrared camera was used for this purpose in December 2005 at the nighttime. The principle of using this method is depending on the difference of the temperature between the sea surface water and the groundwater. The average groundwater temperature in the Dead Sea area is about 33 centigrade. It discharges into the cooler Dead Sea water 12 centigrade. The temperatures of the mixing two types of water (the discharge and the Dead Sea Water) were about 26 centigrade at some spots. These increasing of the Dead Sea temperatures are due to the groundwater discharge. The groundwater discharge was identified by thermal infrared images surveys. The survey provides sharp images of the shoreline of the Dead Sea (pixel size of about 4-5 m).


© 2008 Emad Akawwi, Abdallah Al-Zouabi, Maher Kakish, Fredrich Koehn and Martin Sauter. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.