American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Analysis and Optimization of Carbon Dioxide Emission Mitigation Options in the Cement Industry

Mohammed Ba-Shammakh, Hernane Caruso, Ali Elkamel, Eric Croiset and Peter L. Douglas

DOI : 10.3844/ajessp.2008.482.490

American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 4, Issue 5

Pages 482-490


The cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg of cement produced. Effective control strategies to mitigate these emissions are discussed and a mathematical programming model able to suggest the best cost effective strategy is outlined. Control costs consisting of operating and investment costs along with the efficiency of control options are taken into account in the model. A representative case study from the cement industry was considered in order to illustrate the use of the model in giving optimal control strategies. Efficiency improvement measures were found to be effective options for reduction targets up to 10 %. The model suggested that fuel switching and carbon capture must be considered at reduction targets higher than 10%. The cost of cement production was shown to increase dramatically with an increase in reduction target.


© 2008 Mohammed Ba-Shammakh, Hernane Caruso, Ali Elkamel, Eric Croiset and Peter L. Douglas. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.