American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Mechanically Stimulated Osteoblast Cells Growth

Raffaella Aversa, Antonio Apicella, Francesco Tamburrino and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

DOI : 10.3844/ajeassp.2018.1023.1036

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Volume 11, Issue 2

Pages 1023-1036

Abstract

The bones need to be built and then permanently restored to keep them functioning properly. Considering the multiple bone functions, their vitality is essential both to maintain the body and move it and to maintain its health and vigor. When most bones begin to age and have no vital function, the man also begins to age, lose water, minerals, electrolytes, energy, food. We can firmly affirm that healthy bones maintain an excellent health of the human body. All of the bones in the young have the role of deposit, water, electrolyte, minerals, energy, substances necessary for the growth and repair of human cells and organs, a part (red marrow) that permanently produces the vital blood for the organism with the three vital cell types: red (body oxygenation), white (which defends the body) and platelets (it clogs the blood when a wound appears). More recently, it is also known that the red marrow is responsible for the stem cells production, cells which are so necessary to the body because they can adapt to anywhere in the body in any organ, rapidly generating the various types of cells needed. In the bones of the young and most of the adult, all these functionalities appear, so that when an accident requires a human operation it is good to resort to mild and specialized interventions so that the bone in question can quickly recover all features. Otherwise, the body of that person has a major future health and integrity problem, as is the case with older people or those with serious bone diseases. The research develops and tests new hybrid biomimetic materials that work as mechanically stimulating “scaffolds” to promote early regeneration in implanted bone healing phases. A biomimetic nanostructured osteoconductive material coated apparatus is presented. Bioinspired approaches to materials and templated growth of hybrid networks using self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces are finalized to extend the use of hybrids in the medical field. Combined in vivo, in vitro and computer-aided simulations have been carried out. Such multidisciplinary approach allowed us to explore many novel ideas in modeling, design and fabrication of new nanostructured biomaterials and scaffolds with enhanced functionality and improved interaction with OB cells. In vivo tests of Titanium screw implanted in rabbit, tibiae have shown that mechanical stimulation was induced by the presence of bioactive hybrid perimplantar scaffold resulting in a differentiation and development of mesenchymal tissues. In order to investigate the relationship between bone growth and applied mechanical loading (strain), a piezoelectrically driven cantilever and a computer-controlled apparatus for "in vitro" tests has been developed and presented.

Copyright

© 2018 Raffaella Aversa, Antonio Apicella, Francesco Tamburrino and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.