American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

A Review of Recent Results on 3D Effects

Filippo Berto, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu and Florian Ion T. Petrescu

DOI : 10.3844/ajeassp.2016.1247.1260

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Volume 9, Issue 4

Pages 1247-1260


Three dimensions or three-dimensional or 3D are expressions that characterize the space around us, as perceived by our vision, in terms of width, height and depth. The term "3D" is also (and improperly) used to refer to the representation in synthetic (digital) images, the relief of stereoscopic images or other images in relief and sometimes even the simple stereophonic effect, which Can only render 2D (it is therefore only the calculation of the projected projections, the shadows, the renderings of materials). In mathematics, this notion corresponds to Euclidean geometry in space. The space is marked by three orthogonal axes, contrary to the plane composed of two dimensions. Since its origins and long before the appearance of colour, cinema has exploited stereoscopy, mainly through the processes of anaglyphs. During the 1950 s, the Hollywood studios exploited the polarized filter system and then, from the 2000 s onwards, with the adoption of digital formats, the rooms also equipped the electronic principle with alternating shutter ("active" glasses). Despite some anaglyphic experiments since the 1930 and 1950 s, the commercial success of 3D television became a reality from the end of the 1990 s to a real industrial development from the year 2000. Two principles and devices for Stereoscopic effects are commercialized: Of the "active" type with electronic bezels or of the "passive" type with polarized filter goggles. More complex and costly to industrialize in particular with regard to large screens, auto stereoscopy (relief effect without bezel) was introduced with Alioscopy since the late 1990 s, on the lenticular principle. Stereoscopic videoprojection intended for the general public requires electronic "active" glasses or a special screen (metallised or offering some refraction of light) associated with "passive" glasses with polarized filters. Three-Dimensional (3D) effects close to sharp corners of a hole in a plate with finite thickness are investigated in the present contribution. The results from detailed 3D finite element model are analyzed to investigate the stress intensity of various fracture modes caused by the presence of a finite thickness. The results expressed in terms of stressed are compared with some recent equations. The comparison between numerical and theoretical results shows a sound agreement.


© 2016 Filippo Berto, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu and Florian Ion T. Petrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.