American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

A Novel Method to Improve Weld Uniformity by Automatic Control of Current Intensity

Abdul Aziz A. Morgan and Fahad A. Al-Mufadi

DOI : 10.3844/ajeassp.2015.17.25

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages 17-25


This study aims to develop an automatic arc welding system capable of welding irregular and moving joints which are difficult to weld manually. The motivation of this research comes from the need to produce uniforms weldings on regular and irregular surfaces by automatic means. The system consists of a personal computer equipped with A/D interface card connected to an electric current sensor and two electric motors controlled via electronic circuits. A control program receives the electric current measurements and makes the necessary calculations for the correct vertical motion of the welding electrode. A modified PID controller was used to control the process dynamics. An X-Y mechanism with two electric motors was developed to control the motion of the electrode as well as the work piece. A comparison was made between two welded specimens; one was welded by traditional manual method and, the second by using automatic control mechanism. The weld distribution through the welded joints was compared. Different irregular joints were also compared for the manual and automatic control welding methods. It was found that the control system works with an accuracy of ±28 μm for a 1.01 mm weld thickness of a flat weld by controlling the current at 60 A within a standard deviation of ±1.45 A. As a result welds with uniform thickness were obtained. The uniform heating further contributes to a uniform microstructure in the weld area. The implications of this research will be enhanced automation of the welding process in industry, with improved control over its uniformity, especially while welding around circular objects and during vibrating or unstable conditions.


© 2015 Abdul Aziz A. Morgan and Fahad A. Al-Mufadi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.