Use of Quinolones in Bull Semen Extenders to Reduce Sperm Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage
Clara Gonzalez-Marin, Michael Eduard Kjelland, Rosa Roy, Carmen Lopez-Fernandez, Jose Luis Fernandez, Juan Fernando Moreno and Jaime Gosalvez
DOI : 10.3844/ajavsp.2012.180.185
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 4
Cryopreserved sperm samples from Holstein bulls (n = 20) were examined for bacterial presence and Sperm DNA Fragmentation (SDF) dynamics. SDF was assessed after thawing (T0) and at 4, 24 and 48 h of incubation (37°C) and the rate of SDF (r-SDF), as an estimator of the DNA degradation over time, was calculated. Two groups of bulls were identified based on the presence or absence of bacteria: One group (n = 10) had a readily detectable bacterial presence, while the other group (n = 10) had an undetectable bacterial presence. Differences in the SDF at T0 were not observed between these two groups. However, statistically different results were found after 24 h of incubation at 37°C (Kaplan-Meier estimator; Log-Rank Matel-Cox, p<0.000). To test the direct effect of bacteria on SDF, sperm samples from 6 bulls without bacteria were inoculated with 5 µL of sperm that consistently exhibited a bacterial presence at 48 h of incubation at 37°Differences were observed in the r-SDF between the control and the inoculated samples. In a parallel experiment, sperm samples from 10 bulls were treated with 1 µg mL-1 of ciprofloxacin at T0. Differences in the r-SDF (p>0.05) were not detected between the control and the quinolone treated sample for those samples without bacteria. However, differences (p<0.000) in SDF were observed for quinolone treated samples that previously presented bacteria. Incubation of sealed straws showed that bacterial contamination occurred prior to cryopreservation. These results call attention to three points: (1) sperm samples were in contact with bacteria before cryopreservation; (2) the r-SDF can be directly correlated with bacterial presence but this effect remains cryptic after thawing and (3) the r-SDF can be reduced by treating the semen samples with an adequate antibiotic such as quinolones, a finding not previously reported in the scientific literature, but important in terms of reproduction.
© 2012 Clara Gonzalez-Marin, Michael Eduard Kjelland, Rosa Roy, Carmen Lopez-Fernandez, Jose Luis Fernandez, Juan Fernando Moreno and Jaime Gosalvez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.