Spraying Effects on Goat Welfare in Hot and Humid Climate
Nazan Darcan, Fatin Cedden and Okan Guney
DOI : 10.3844/ajavsp.2007.99.103
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 4
Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed: Control). Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin) were taken three times a day (08.00-09.00, 16.00-17.00 and 12.00-01.00) on hot summer days in July-2005 under Mediterranean conditions. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. The results showed that rectal temperatures (p≤0.005), pulse (p≤0.054) and respiration rates (p≤0.049), udder (p≤0.041) and head temperatures (p≤0.033) in three groups were significantly different. Depending on rising air temperature, rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased during daytime and retired to normal level at night time. TTS goats were superior to the others regarding above-mentioned physiological data. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats while eating (p≤0.02), ruminating (p≤0.04) and walking (p≤0.01) but less time while drinking (p≤0.01) and resting (p≤0.01). Significant changes between three groups were ascertained regarding feed and water consumptions. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (p≤0.042) and alfalfa hay (p = 0.032) than other two groups, whereas Control groups consumed more water (p≤0.012) than the others. Ultimately, the spraying has positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improve animal welfare.
© 2007 Nazan Darcan, Fatin Cedden and Okan Guney. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.