American Journal of Applied Sciences

The Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Made with a Composite Flour from Wheat and Tempoyak (Fermented Durian)

Fazilah Ariffin, Mohd Arif Baharom, Bhupinder Kaur and Maizura Murad

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2015.775.784

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 12, Issue 11

Pages 775-784


Composite flour from wheat flour and Tempoyak Flour (TF) was produced in this study. Three different bread formulations from the composite flour were produced, containing 5% TF (TF5), 10% TF (TF10) and 15% TF (TF15). Bread samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics compared with control bread made from 100% wheat flour. The resistant starch content increased significantly (p<0.05) with a higher level of TF. The increasing TF level in the bread formulations significantly decreased (p<0.05) the glycemic index. The use of TF in bread decreased the loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring; however, it increased the loaf weight. The results of a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) showed that the hardness of the breads varied significantly and increased with increasing TF in the formulation. However, substitution of TF at 5% did not affect the cohesiveness or chewiness of bread compared with the 10 and 15% substitutions. The results of the hedonic analysis demonstrated that all treatments and the control had no significant differences (p>0.05) in aroma. The use of up to 10% TF is acceptable according to the overall acceptance scores of the panelists.


© 2015 Fazilah Ariffin, Mohd Arif Baharom, Bhupinder Kaur and Maizura Murad. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.