American Journal of Applied Sciences

Influence of Annealing Temperature on Characteristics of Bismuth Doped Zinc Oxide Films

Sirirat Tubsungnoen Rattanachan, Phanuwat Krongarrom and Thipwan Fangsuwannarak

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2013.1427.1438

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 10, Issue 11

Pages 1427-1438


In this study, Bismuth (Bi) doped ZnO thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by a sol-gel spin coating method and annealed at different annealing temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700°C, respectively. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline Bi-doped ZnO film on quartz were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The high annealing temperature of 700°C as a critical temperature causes the crystallographic reorientation plane in ZnO:Bi nanostructure mostly due to the initial formation of the polycrystalline phase with the inter-grain segregation of Bi dopant atoms. Bi-incorporating ZnO films with an increase in annealing temperature resulted in a blue wavelength shift of the photon absorption edge. The optical band gap of the films was increased from 3.27 eV to 3.34 eV. By decreasing the annealing temperatures from 700 to 200°C, the grain size of Bi-doped ZnO decreased from 18 nm to 8 nm. The effect of the annealing temperature on the electrical conductivity had been considered. The low electrical conductivity of 0.9 (Ω.cm)-1 was obtained for ZnO:0.2 film annealed at 600°C with good nano-crystallization. However, the Bi-doped ZnO films prepared by cost-effective spin coating technique provided to have a very high photon absorption coefficient (104-105 cm-1) and did not appreciably affect the optical transparency. ZnO films doped with 0.2% at. Bi can be used as a high resistive buffer layer for solar cell application.


© 2013 Sirirat Tubsungnoen Rattanachan, Phanuwat Krongarrom and Thipwan Fangsuwannarak. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.