American Journal of Applied Sciences

Neuroprotective Effect against Alzheimer's Disease of Porcine Brain Extract

Wipawee Thukham-Mee, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura and Chuleratana Bunchonglikitkul

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2012.700.708

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 9, Issue 5

Pages 700-708

Abstract

Problem statement: Despite the increasing importance of Alzheimer’s disease, no effective therapeutic strategy is available. Therefore, neuroprotective strategy is still required. Recent findings show that numerous substances possessing antioxidant can improve neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Based on the antioxidant effect and its reputation to serve as brain tonic in traditional folklore, we hypothesized that porcine brain extract could mitigate neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Therefore, this study was set up to determine the effect of porcine brain extract on memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Approach: Male Wistar rats (180-220 g) had been orally given porcine brain extract at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg kg-1 BW for a period of 4 weeks before and 1 week after the induction of cognitive deficit condition as those found in early phase of Alzheimer’s disease via the intraventricular injection of AF64A, a cholinotoxin. Rats were assessed the spatial memory using Morris water maze test. Then, they were determined neuron density in hippocampus using histological techniques. Moreover, the assessment of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in hippocampus were also performed. Results: It was found that both doses of porcine brain extract could enhance memory, neuron and cholinergic neuron density in all subregions of hippocampus. In addition, the decreased AChE and MDA were also observed. Therefore, our results suggested that the possible underlying mechanism of the extract might occur partly via the decrease in oxidative stress marker, MDA and AChE. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that porcine brain extract can protect against memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it should be serve as the potential food supplement or adjuvant therapy against Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive decline. However, further researches about therapeutic range and possible active ingredient are necessary.

Copyright

© 2012 Wipawee Thukham-Mee, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura and Chuleratana Bunchonglikitkul. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.