American Journal of Applied Sciences

A New Novel Fidelity Digital Watermarking Based on Adaptively Pixel-Most-Significant-Bit-6 in Spatial Domain Gray Scale Images and Robust

Mehemed Bashir Aliwa, Tarek El-Ahmady El-Tobely, Mahmood M. Fahmy, Mohamed EL Said Nasr and Mohamed Hashem Abd El-Aziz

DOI : 10.3844/ajassp.2010.987.1022

American Journal of Applied Sciences

Volume 7, Issue 7

Pages 987-1022


The digital watermarking technology is a way to apply digital information hiding techniques and prevent malicious and non-malicious attacks to detect hidden information. Problem statement: The problems in digital watermarking is that the three requirements of imperceptibility, capacity and robustness that are must be satisfied but they almost conflict with each other, accordingly there are tradeoff between fidelity and robustness. Furthermore the embed a watermark bits within the pixels by a Least-Significant-Bit (LSB) insertion of the cover image in spatial domain technologies, when an image is being embedded, it shouldn’t cause any visual change to the cover image, while almost authors using LSB insertion to hide a watermark bits within a low embedding errors, whereas the authors are avoiding to use the Most-Significant-Bit (MSB). Thus there are a trade-off between the embedding error in the LSB and MSB. Approach: We proposed a new novel fidelity and robust of watermark embedding method that satisfies the requirements and problems, called Adaptively Pixel Adjustment Process based on Medial Pyramid Of Embedding Error applying in the Falling-Off-Boundary in Corners Board of the cover image set-of-the Most-Significant-Bit-6 in spatial domain (APAP-MPOEE-FOBCBMSB6). In addition, the study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of previous methods. Results: Theoretically analysis of the proposed technique proves the effectiveness of the technique in the average of worst case and minimizing the number of embedding error to the half and the experimental results applied on the different benchmark of six gray scale images with two quantum of watermark bit embedded are compared with previous researches and was found better. Moreover in all different benchmark of test images the watermarks were extracted from watermark degrading, removal and geometric transformations attacks to an acceptable degree of similarity function and normalized cross correlation. Conclusion: Theoretically analysis is proves and in all different benchmark the watermarks are extracted under malicious and nonmalicious attacks and compared with previous study was found better.


© 2010 Mehemed Bashir Aliwa, Tarek El-Ahmady El-Tobely, Mahmood M. Fahmy, Mohamed EL Said Nasr and Mohamed Hashem Abd El-Aziz. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.