Spatial Pattern of Natural Spread of Rice False Smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) Disease in Fields
Bodrun Nessa, Moin U. Salam, A.H.M. Mahfuzul Haque, Jiban K. Biswas, M. Shahjahan Kabir, William J. MacLeod, Mario D'Antuono, Hirendra N. Barman, M. Abdul Latif and Jean Galloway
DOI : 10.3844/ajabssp.2015.63.73
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 10, Issue 2
Pattern of disease spread provides improved knowledge on how the pathogen introduces itself and interacts with environment in fields and expresses as a disease. It is especially significant when epidemiology of a disease, such as Rice False Smut (RFSm), is unclearly understood. Not reported before, this study attempted an analysis of spatial pattern of natural spread of RFSm in nine fields in an intensive rice ecosystem in Bangladesh. Both conventional and specialized statistical methods were applied in the analysis. Results show that the spread of the disease was not similar between and within the fields and even some fields were almost disease free. RFSm recorded aggregation in spaces in most of the fields, but the location of this aggregation differed between the fields. Symptom recorded on panicles in regenerated tillers from harvested main crop (otherwise known as ratoons). The disease tended to be prominent towards proximity of drainage channels. The probability of occurring one diseased tiller per hill was calculated as 73% and cumulative probability of four or less smut balls per diseased panicle as little over 60%. This study establishes soil as the absolute dominant source of initiation of the epidemic. The analysis did not find evidence of any long- or short-distance primary and/or secondary sources of infection. It is concluded that the disease management be directed specific to the fields at risk. It suggests development of a soil testing tool for quantifying inoculum potential in a field to ascertain the risk. With the discovery of symptom on ratoons, this study highlights the need for fresh thinking on identifying the pathway of entry of the pathogen into the plant.
© 2015 Bodrun Nessa, Moin U. Salam, A.H.M. Mahfuzul Haque, Jiban K. Biswas, M. Shahjahan Kabir, William J. MacLeod, Mario D'Antuono, Hirendra N. Barman, M. Abdul Latif and Jean Galloway. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.