Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Mulberry Fruits
Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Wipawee Thukummee, Cholathip Thipkaew, Panakporn Wannanond, Terdthai Tong-Un, Supaporn Muchimapura and Wiroje Kaewrueng
DOI : 10.3844/ajabssp.2012.378.383
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 7, 2012
At present, the application of phytomedicine worldwide is substantial increase. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or fruits and vegetables used for medicinal purposes should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for the application as functional food. Despite the widely consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L, Maraceae family) fruits both as fruit and as medicine, no systematic evaluation of the toxicity of mulberry fruits is available until now. This study aimed to determine the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of mulberry fruits in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute mulberry fruits extract dose of 2000 mg kg-1 dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 2, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 were also administered the same way for 90 days. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights and histopathological examinations. In addition, we also examined hematological and clinical chemistry values. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different BUN and glucose were also observed, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that mulberry fruits do not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Therefore mulberry fruits have the potential to be use as functional food. However, a chronic toxicity study should be further carried out to assure the safety for repetitive administration of this fruit before the application of functional food.
© 2012 Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Wipawee Thukummee, Cholathip Thipkaew, Panakporn Wannanond, Terdthai Tong-Un, Supaporn Muchimapura and Wiroje Kaewrueng. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.