Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution of Mangrove Swamps: The Promises of Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation
F. A. Orji, A. A. Ibiene and O. C. Ugbogu
DOI : 10.3844/ajabssp.2012.207.216
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 7, 2012
Problem statement: The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA) is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta and other parts of the globe. The effectiveness of RENA as a remediation technology in the most recent time has been challenged by few authorities. The deleterious effects of pollutants on the environment have led to increased awareness and vigilance against contamination of the Niger Delta environment. Bio remediation which has been defined as biological response to environmental abuse has continued to receive research attentions across the globe. This study addresses issues against the RENA and recommended ways forward. Approach: The review paper studied published articles and Oil companies routine practices of managing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted Environments including mangrove swamps from 1970 till date. The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA) is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta including mangrove ecosystems. Results: The study made inputs on the controversial issues around RENA technology and recommended certain ways forward. This revision also reported the ways of managing the concerns raised against RENA. Conclusion/Recommendations: Oil firms, remediation contractors and consultants using this RENA approach should employ strict monitoring during the process and also adhere strictly to standard practices and the mitigation measures for all the cases against RENA as documented in this review study. This is to ensure the achievement of Sustainable Development.
© 2012 F. A. Orji, A. A. Ibiene and O. C. Ugbogu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.