The Efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum and Aneurinobacillus migulanus in the Control of Gladiolus Corm Rot in Soil-Less Culture System
Nosir Walid, McDonald Jim and Woodward Steve
DOI : 10.3844/ajabssp.2010.436.445
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 4
Problem statement: Gladiolus is cultivated commonly for cut flower production, frequently as a protected crop. The glasshouse or polytunnel environment, providing excellent conditions for flower production, also make conditions more favorable for disease to develop. Approach: The pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli causes wilt diseases in a wide range of economically important plants and can have devastating effects on crop production. Trichoderma harzianum and Aneurinobacillus migulanus were tested separately and in combination for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli activity in soilless culture using Perlite as the substrate. Results: The efficiency of both of antagonists against corm rot was evaluated based on vegetative and root growth parameters and on flowering parameters. T. harzianum was more effective than A. migulanus in disease suppression and also enhanced plant growth, increased flower production and quality. A. migulanus enhanced plant growth when tested alone. The mixture of antagonists reduced the efficiency of T. harzianum. Numbers of T. harzianum CFU in the substrate and on corms increased following application compared with treating with both antagonists. No T. harzianum was detected in the substrate by 120 day after planting, however, A. migulanus CFU significantly decreased on corms when inoculated in combination with T. harzianum and F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. However, A. migulanus CFU was not detected in the substrate of the same combination. SEM and Glasshouse results suggested that suppressive mechanisms of T. harzianum and A. migulanus differed. T. harzianum appeared to operate through a combination of antibiosis and substrate competition, whereas A. migulanus produced an electron-dense substance which may have inhibited the penetration of host tissues by F. oxysporum f. sp. gladiolus. Greater growth of T. harzianum was observed when inoculated alone or with F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli hyphae. Conclusion: It was concluded that T. harzianum provided a more efficient and effective control of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli corm rot of Gladiolus when inoculated without A. migulanus.
© 2010 Nosir Walid, McDonald Jim and Woodward Steve. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.